today on how it's made railway bridge time ha membrane filters hydraulic post drivers and by play and the day covering away bridges typically build up with timbers call bridge times their bolted to steel support beams located on concrete piers over the water or gully below the rails on which the train travels are bolted to the wooden times would absorbs the noise and vibration up the passing train the loan the railway bridge will carry determines the size of its times to calculate the load engineers factor in the number of tracks volume up rack way to transport cargo and whether the bridges straight worker a curve will put additional stress on the structure the only choice is ok because it's hard and strong when the Los arrive at the sawmill they come face to face with a menacing looking device call do Barker a conveyor moves the shipment toward the Barker then drops a single login fronted onto spinning rollers I'll the rulers rotate the law well the two Barker makes its way from one end to the other its use of the park with that sharp toothed blades well put the Barker shaves off is put to good use the bar kits processed into gardening March and they burn the sawdust in the wood-fired boiler that runs another part of the plant next longer time drops into a mobile carriage that runs it through circular saw the carriage has sensors which detect the logs extremities and report its dimensions to a console located the operator's cab the operator interprets the data using a joystick controller he flips the log into whichever position maximizes the yield the first few Brunnstrom of the rough surface and square the shape the next runs cut boards which the sawmill cells in class this continues until the loggers the exact dimensions of the bridge time I'll again nothing is wasted the psalm whole process is the cutoffs into wood chips which it then sells to companies that make particle board strand board and similar construction materials %uh the sawmill stacks the ties for transfer to the bridge mill next door the role of the bridge mill is to frame the bridge also known as dabbing that's the process of making the specific Olson arches and each time for attaching it to the steel beam on which will set at the bridge mill the bridge layout supervisor processes want i at a time carefully reviews the engineers blueprints which assign a number to each and every time these numbers specify precisely where this all has to cut notches and where the drill has two boreholes the locations at these notches and holes very depending on the ties position on the bridge so he must follow the blueprint meticulously after measuring and marking it all out he sends the tie to the DAP song the operator setter each cut lining up the mark with laser lights which indicate the location and the cutting depth of the blade %uh the notches are just the right size to fit over the steel beams on which the time will I next the worker using a drill press Poor's holes for hopefuls which go through the time to secure it onto the steel beams home each time receives a metal identification tag heuer which includes the bridge entire numbers on each end workers nail on a match played made a rustproof galvanized steel the place has teeth designed to grasp and hold together the wood fiber to prevent the AM from splitting after nailing the ID tag to want to be in place workers force in both places with the press the tires last stop was the adjacent treatment plant they spend hours inside a high temperature high pressure chamber which penetrates them with the creosote solution this protects the word from rod in insect damage and extends the ties life span from about a decade to at least twenty-five years when filtering liquids it's all about thinking small membrane filters can separate the tiniest solids from fluids which purifies the liquids and recovers the sounds one separated the two substances may then be reused so that nothing goes to waste well membrane filters can turn murky water clear almost magically well to demonstrate a technician installs a spiral well membrane in the housing other pumping system which is a small-scale version of what you would see in a factory well she turns on the tap and water flows into a tank cheers latex paint to purposely solely the water up the system pumps the contaminated water through a strainer and then the membrane filter meters measure the flow within minutes the pain has been filtered out and the water is clear old the making of a membrane filter begins with polypropylene mesh well an automated system on wines the mash then cuts it too late these men sheets will be used as spacers bill create gaps for the liquid to flow through the filter and over the membrane I'll next the system cut sheets have polyester fabric these will form channels through which the filtered material will travel the sheeter known as permeates Pacers an employee stacks the polyester fabric sheets using high-frequency sound waves she world's she to the next to just one end up she layers in world to total %uh sheets and then applies double sided tape the tape is for attaching the package to a central to and will also serve as a guide to correctly align it ok next the membrane soon flows into a long trough its and makes have melted plastics and solvents I'll paper backing on wines into the trough in is coated with the soup on one side coated paper then travels through to quench tax and the plastic components solidified as the solvents are drawn out the exiting solvents greedy unique pore structure the remaining white plastic membrane the membrane now travels by a lightbox which eliminates any visual defects an applicator also drops a preservative onto the membrane a team on rolls the membrane on to work table up they lay a sheet of the polypropylene mesh which we saw cut to size earlier on the membrane the employee then cuts the membrane to twice bling for the mash the fold the membrane over the mesh creating a membrane m below mesh serves as a pathway for fluid to flow between the membranes up meanwhile another worker applies a party to a perforated plastic to key attach is the permeate spacers to it with the double sided tape giving me a party time to cure for permanent sealed p and a colleague apply more a boxy to the perimeter of the bottom sheet they transfer the membrane envelope to it and continue to layer making a permeate fabric and membrane sandwich %uh deep the worker then wines that good players snugly to a perforated plastic cord forming the spiral membrane filter I'll he takes the multi-layered wide from one end to the other the tables everything tightly in place as the epoxy cures overnight %uh they leave the table on after the Cure and the Machine wines a party drinks fiberglass rope around the entire filter %uh as the a punk see cures the roping form a hard shell around the membrane filter part way through they apply the label with the company name well %uh the operator captures the blue runoff during the wind %uh and it's a wrap so we cut the rope from the side you can see the flow channels between the layers concentrated contaminants will travel through them and out the filtered liquid will seep into the core and Texans clearly improved ok the invention of the hydraulic post driver in the nineteen sixties allowed workers to drop their shovels and sledge hammers and let the machine do the job pounding fence and signposts into the ground when it comes to labor-saving inventions this one is definitely a striking example ok the post driver races have defense her signposts into position ok and then slams them into the ground ok inside a vertical case hydraulic system drops a -pound way to drive the post and then let sit for another hickok this machine does the work of two or more brownie humans with just one person at the controls ok to make they start with the vertical case for the way a high-precision plasma torch cut steel into a rectangular shape and makes holes for components hard they insert the rectangle into a break press repeatedly to bend into a three-sided park the profile includes flanges for welding to the back wall the case ok key fits the part to the back wall and world's them together completing the post rubber case an employee builds the POS driver wat working within world fixture it's a box-shaped Wade and he will sit at the seams ok do he taps the corners between worlds to maintain a tight configuration ok this three hundred pound weight can later be filled with steel shot to make it even heavier for greater impact the next worker assembles yellow steel jaws to a hard to produce the grappled this is the part the group the fence post and raises it into position dokie sticks a danger little onto the hard to warn people to stay clear these powerful job loss did he attach a hydraulic cylinder which will make the jars open and close ok he connects the cylinder to the grapple jogged next they move on to the metal plate that will be used to mount the post driver to a vehicle like a skid steer loader it includes a hydraulic mechanism for tilting the fence post left or right just the employees installs a control valve next to the cylinder and links the two with hoses bill also connect the grappling with hydraulics to this fast back to the post driver case now it's been painted and they're ready to install the hydraulic motors to worker connected to the sprockets in Chains that will lift the waged pippen's the sprockets into place and installs tension rods on either side ext next to cover plate protects the sprockets the tensioning Raj harga xiaomi mi5 pro edition protrude proved he spied springs on to those tension rods and compresses the springs to maintain the tensions home he now attach is the grapple to the post driver case he locks into place with a long paired just feelings they grapple hydraulics to the control valve and it's ready to grant big fence post and hold on tight do you attach the metal mounting plate to the post driver case the worktable tilts back to move the post driver into an upright position bust with the help of a crane the next worker moves to wade into position and lowers it into the case West he slides up into the top to keep away from falling out post drivers on an angle ok one day in the making this hydraulic post driver is ready for years have heavy labor taking over for humans so they don't have to move a muscled ok a biplane is a vintage-style aircraft with two pairs of wings sitting one above the other the top wings are typically raised above the fuselage with vertical struts bracing them to the bottom wings dating back to the earliest days alleviation they're still popular for performing aerobatics Mumbai planes lower wings have a Laurent's which bank the airplane to the right or left on the plane's tail elevators pitch the plane's nose copper down while runners tears and laughter right a propeller provides the propulsion the plane has four wins each wing has two spars wooden beams at the front and rear which form the perimeter structure a crash been skillfully fashions the spars have Sitka spruce this word is exceedingly lied get exceptionally strong make you one of only a few words approved for structural use in airplanes %uh after someone were to the spar shame he meant attachment leads made of Sitka spruce and mahogany plywood these are the and struts steel vertical bars which will connect the upper and lower wings he finishes this bar by refining its contoured first with the hand plane then an electric blame using strips of Sitka spruce reconstructs structural rooms for each weighing pee begins with long strips which have been soaking in water for a week to make them pliable can search one hand into a curb fixture and leaves the strips to dry when he removes them a couple days later they have a permanent aerodynamic her key clues to curb strips together to form the perimeter of one rep in between he clue short Dagnall strips called crosses %uh he reinforces both sides have each intersection with a rectangular piece called a gusher %uh in assembler mounts the reps crosswise on the front and rear wing spars then installs aluminum tubes called compression reps %uh these absorb heirloom hitting the sparse keeping the wooden rods from flexing under pressure the Craftsman connects the compression rooms with criss-crossing metal rods it after applying more glue two critical areas emails in aluminum trim over the front spar and those are the rooms this is called the leading edge it's the first part of the wing to hit the wind so it takes the brunt of the air low finely he laces reinforcement a through the rooms in the next batter the completed structure now moves to the covering Department were technicians great in heat shrinkable polyester fabric %uh they cut the fabric to size glued to the wing parameter and he to surface with an iron to shrink the fabric until it's gone then they stitch over the good areas with polyester core the brush on a chemical which seals the port of the fabric this primes the service to receive the Sprague a polyurethane paint which is a special formulation designed for aircraft bodies technicians construct the fuselage frame have high strength steel alloy tunes %uh the use the electric torch to slightly melted joining pieces so they fused to each other because there's no filler metal binding the peace the world's don't add any way to the structure after painting the frame technicians installment for panels and blockades in detail the and later went bonkers made of mahogany plywood in Sitka spruce then it's time to pull the engine to the front of the fuselage frayed the engine drives a propeller me to be there would aluminum or a composite material painted aluminum body panels cover the frame %uh technicians install the fuel tank between the front cockpit in the engine nipple the wings to diffuse aligns vertical steel struts connect and reinforce the two levels of warnings bolting to those attachment plates on the wing spars next technicians mount the painted aluminum ailerons detail with that elevators in Runnemede painted fabric over world steel and then the engine cover the install the windscreen instrument panel for each cockpit the front screen can be replaced with the cockpit cover to keep the pilots warm when flying in cold weather hope you have any comments about the show or if you'd like to suggest topics for future shows drop us a line at Science Channel dot com forward slash
Senin, 18 Januari 2016
Thousands of refugees could be "swayed by law," due to the berbeda-bedanya rules of the border diteapkan the countries of Western Europe in the face of a wave of arrivals of refugees, UNHCR warned.
The UN Agency for refugees that called for Europe to build centres of refugee reception center in the countries where the influx of refugees.
Earlier, Germany enacted a freebie on the border with Austria.
The Minister of the Interior of Europe is scheduled to conduct an emergency meeting to discuss the refugee crisis, Monday (14/9) afternoon.
Their agenda discusses how to deploy 16000 asylum seekers into the 23 EU Member States through mandatory quotas. Initial discussion throughout the early weeks to create draft documents, ended without a deal.
In general European difficulties cope with the flood of refugees mostly from Syria, plus some from Afghanistan, Eritrea and other countries, which escape from the violence and poverty.
Most of the refugees refused to be registered in countries such as Hungary and Greece, for fear of not being able to obtain asylum in Germany and other developed countries.
UNHCR expresses anxiety, that a refugee who sought refuge that can be "terlunta-lunta in the uncertainties of the law."
To pass, the determination of border checking steps vary by several European countries, "underlined the urgency of sends comprehensive step of Europe."
This step should be based on the establishment of refugee reception centres are effectively "with appropriate and adequate help, register and check those arriving in Greece, Italy, and Hubgaria."